Comparison Report

Comparison for CyberArks Enterprise Password Vault, Thycotic Secret Server and NetIQ Privileged Access Manager Software

The Cyber-Ark Enterprise Password Vault, or EPV, Cyber-Ark is a high-end password management powerhouse. This product helps administrators manage privi­leged account passwords across several major platforms using an advanced FIPS 140-2 validated cryptography module. This Vault also keeps critical password information secure using AES 256-bit encryption, along with solid auditing and tracking.

Installation and deployment of this system is almost plug-and ­play. Once we did some initial configuration on the appliances, we were up and running. The web-based management interface is simple and intuitive to use, and a clear and organized dashboard provides a quick overview of man­aged systems by type, along with password usage statistics.

Enterprise Vault Management-

Flexibility and granularity is the best way to describe the performance of this system. The Enterprise Password Vaults can manage almost any sys­tem or service account. Some of these include operating systems, such as UNIX, Linux, AS/400, MVS and Windows; databases, such as Sybase, Oracle, MS Access and MS SQL; firewalls, such as Cisco, Checkpoint and Juniper; and network devices, routers and key systems, such as LDAP and Active Directory. This high amount of flexibility assures solid and secure management of all critical accounts across the entire environment.

Documentation provided with the Enterprise Password Vault includes an installation and upgrade guide, an implemen­tation guide and an application identity management guide. All these were very well organized and included many screen shots and configuration examples.

Cyber-Ark provides no-cost basics Support for the Enterprise Password Vault via access to the online knowledge base and cus­tomer portal for a minimum of two years from the date of purchase. Customers can also have access to phone and email-based support as part of a support agreement.

With a price starting at $21,000, this product may seem quite pricey. However, we find it to be a solid value for the money. The Enterprise Password Vaults gives a high amount of granularity and flexibility across an entire enterprise of systems and accounts.

NetIQ Secret Server:

The NetIQ Privileged Account Manager offers a four-tiered approach to managing privileged access. This product allows for privilege elevation in order to complete a task, management of shared credentials through the use of policy and approval workflows, manage privileged remote sessions with a system and, finally, manage application-to-application passwords and credentials. This comprehensive approach allows for ultimate management and securing of privileged accounts and their associated passwords.

This tool comes as a software-based install that can be set up on a Windows server within the environment. The installation is quite straightforward and also includes a MySQL database backend, which is suitable for most deployments. At the conclusion of the install, all other management is done via a web-based management interface. We found this interface to be easy to use with an intuitive navigation structure and clean layout.

From a configuration perspective, this product can pull systems in from Active Directory or systems can be added manually. Once systems are configured within the interface, access to systems and accounts can be done using Active Directory users or groups, as well as providing easy integration with the already existing infrastructure.

On the user side, users access the Privileged Account Manager via a web-based user interface. This interface has an intuitive tab-top design and allows for easy navigation to access systems using RDP or SSH with one click and without exposing credentials to users.

This product includes excellent auditing and reporting features. All sessions are fully logged and can be reported on directly within the management console. Event logs are broken down and colour-coded to provide more clarity on event types and to make finding unauthorized behaviour easy.

Security administrators can also access full session recordings that include bookmarked keylogging so that it is quick and easy to get directly to the point when a change is made. Further, administrators can shadow a session without users knowing they are there and terminate the session in the case of unauthorized activity.

NetIQ includes the first year of basic support as part of the purchase price of the product. Basic support includes 8/5 phone- and email-based technical support as well as access to a small assistance area on the website which includes product documentation and a knowledge base. After the first year, support can be renewed as part of an annual agreement, which starts at $31 per managed endpoint. Premium 24/7 technical support is also offered at a higher cost.

At a price of $150 per managed endpoint, we find this product a reasonable value for the money. The NetIQ Privileged Account Manager provides a good amount of easy to use functionality with some solid reporting and auditing features.

Thycotic Secret Server:

It offers high scale distributed privileged account management. It is built on top of a secure vault that can not only lock up credentials but can be used to secure certificates and other valuable documents as well as control access through policy and auditing. Customizable workflows can be designed to easily integrate this product directly into any environment, including being able to launch a session – such as a remote desktop client – without ever showing the credentials to the end-user at all.

This solution comes as a software-based install and only requires that it be loaded onto a Windows Server with IIS installed. It also requires SQL Server for the backend database, but that can be installed locally or as part of an enterprise cluster. After installation is complete, all management is done via a web-based management console. This is well-organized and the layout is intuitive to navigate. Secret Server also fully integrates with Active Directory to pull in users and groups for setting access policy. From the user side, all access to assigned accounts, systems and passwords is done through an equally intuitive web interface. Users can also access systems directly with Remote Desktop and Putty while still working within the Secret Server.

Scale, distribution and integration are all strong points. The Thycotic Secret Server can be easily deployed in multiple locations or across several servers and configurations. It can be easily pushed out using the distributed engine. Aside from being easily scalable, this offering is also easily integrated for managing service accounts with scripted password changing and API level integration to remove clear text passwords out of configuration files.

Credentials can also be managed directly for vulnerability scanners, ensuring credential-based scanning is properly managed. Finally, it can be directly integrated into ticketing systems to allow for full process and change management. All of these functions, plus all user activity, is logged and archived for auditing, including session recordings of user RDP and SSH sessions.

Thycotic offers full standard phone-, email- and ticket-based technical support 12/7 at no additional cost. Customers also have access to a large online assistance portal which includes resources such as an online community and moderated user forum, knowledge base and full product documentation downloads. Premium 24/7 support is also available at an additional subscription cost of $2,500 per year.

At a price starting at $5,000, this product is an excellent value for the money. The Thycotic Secret Server provides high functionality and high scalability at a reasonable starting price. Couple that with really good, no-cost technical support and this product can be a great investment for almost any environment.

VMware vCenter Update Manager fails


  • Downloading patches from one of the software sites configured in VMware vCenter Update Manager fails.
  • In VMware vCenter Update Manager server logs, you see entries similar to:

    [2011-11-01 15:24:57:425 ‘httpDownload’ 4440 ERROR] [httpDownload, 732] Error 12175 from WinHttpSendRequest for url


  • Error 12175 deals with failed certificate validation. This issue can occur if one of the CA certificates used to sign the patch sites certificate is not trusted by the computer running the VMware vCenter Update Manager server software.


Update Manager 5.0 introduces a new setting that verifies the SSL certificates during download. By default, this value is set to 1 or enabled.
To disable this behavior:
  1. Click Start > Run, enter regedit, and click OK. The Registry Editor window opens.
  2. Navigate to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Wow6432Node\VMware, Inc.\VMware Update Manager key.
  3. Right-click the value of the SslVerifyDownloadCertificate key and click Modify.
  4. Change the Value data field value to 0.
  5. Click OK.
  6. Click Start > Run, enter services.msc, and click OK.
  7. Right-click VMware vSphere Update Manager Service and click Restart.

VMware Interview Questions

  1. What is a Hypervisor?

It is a program that allows multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. Each operating system appears to have the host’s processor, memory, and other resources all to itself. However, the hypervisor is actually controlling the host processor and resources, allocating what is needed to each operating system in turn and making sure that the guest operating systems (called virtual machines) cannot disrupt each other.

  1. What is the hardware version used in VMware ESXi 5.5?

Version 10

Below is the table showing the different version of hardware used in different VMware products along with their release version

Virtual Hardware Version Products
10 ESXi 5.5, Fusion 6.x, Workstation 10.x, Player 6.x
9 ESXi 5.1, Fusion 5.x, Workstation 9.x, Player 5.x
8 ESXi 5.0, Fusion 4.x, Workstation 8.x, Player 4.x
7 ESXi/ESX 4.x, Fusion 2.x/3.x Workstation 6.5.x/7.x,Player 3.x
6 Workstation 6.0.x
4 ACE 2.x, ESX 3.x, Fusion 1.x, Player 2.x
3 and 4 ACE 1.x, Player 1.x, Server 1.x, Workstation 5.x, Workstation 4.x
3 ESX 2.x, GSX Server 3.x
  1. What is the difference between the vSphere ESX and ESXi architectures?

VMware ESX and ESXi are both bare metal hypervisor architectures that install directly on the server hardware.

Although neither hypervisor architectures relies on an OS for resource management, the vSphere ESX architecture relied on a Linux operating system, called the Console OS (COS) or service console, to perform two management functions: executing scripts and installing third-party agents for hardware monitoring, backup or systems management.

In the vSphere ESXi architecture, the service console has been removed. The smaller code base of vSphere ESXi represents a smaller “attack surface” and less code to patch, improving reliability and security.

  1. What is a .vmdk file?

This isn’t the file containing the raw data. Instead it is the disk descriptor file which describes the size and geometry of the virtual disk file. This file is in text format and contains the name of the –flat.vmdk file for which it is associated with and also the hard drive adapter type, drive sectors, heads and cylinders, etc. One of these files will exist for each virtual hard drive that is assigned to your virtual machine. You can tell which –flat.vmdk file it is associated with by opening the file and looking at the Extent Description field.

  • What are the different types of virtualization?

Server Virtualization – consolidating multiple physical servers into virtual servers that run on a single physical server.

Application Virtualization – an application runs on another host from where it is installed in a variety of ways. It could be done by application streaming, desktop virtualization or VDI, or a VM package (like VMware ACE creates with a player). Microsoft Softgrid is an example of Application virtualization.

Presentation Virtualization – This is what Citrix Met frame (and the ICA protocol) as well as Microsoft Terminal Services (and RDP) are able to create. With presentation virtualization, an application actually runs on another host and all that you see on the client is the screen from where it is run.

Network Virtualization – with network virtualization, the network is “carved up” and can be used for multiple purposes such as running a protocol analyzer inside an Ethernet switch. Components of a virtual network could include NICs, switches, VLANs, network storage devices, virtual network containers, and network media.

Storage Virtualization – with storage virtualization, the disk/data storage for your data is consolidated to and managed by a virtual storage system. The servers connected to the storage system aren’t aware of where the data really is. Storage virtualization is sometimes described as “abstracting the logical storage from the physical storage.

  1. What is VMware vMotion and what are its requirements?

VMware VMotion enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physical server to another with zero downtime.

VMotion lets you:

  • Automatically optimize and allocate entire pools of resources for maximum hardware utilization and
  • availability.
  • Perform hardware maintenance without any scheduled downtime.
  • Proactively migrate virtual machines away from failing or under performing servers.

Below are the pre-requisites for configuring vMotion

  • Each host must be correctly licensed for vMotion
  • Each host must meet shared storage requirements
    • vMotion migrates the vm from one host to another which is only possible with both the host are sharing a common storage or to any storage accessible by both the source and target hosts.
    • A shared storage can be on a Fibre Channel storage area network (SAN), or can be implemented using iSCSI SAN and NAS.
    • If you use vMotion to migrate virtual machines with raw device mapping (RDM) files, make sure to maintain consistent LUN IDs for RDMs across all participating hosts.
  • Each host must meet the networking requirements
    • Configure a VMkernel port on each host.
    • Dedicate at least one GigE adapter for vMotion.
    • Use at least one 10 GigE adapter if you migrate workloads that have many memory operations.
    • Use jumbo frames for best vMotion performance.
    • Ensure that jumbo frames are enabled on all network devices that are on the vMotion path including physical NICs, physical switches and virtual switches.
  1. What is the difference between cloneand template in VMware?


  • A clone is a copy of virtual machine.
  • You cannot convert back the cloned Virtual Machine.
  • A Clone of a Virtual Machine can be created when the Virtual Machine is powered on
  • Cloning can be done in two ways namely Full Clone and Linked Clone.
  • A full clone is an independent copy of a virtual machine that shares nothing with the parent virtual machine after the cloning operation. Ongoing operation of a full clone is entirely separate from the parent virtual machine.
  • A linked clone is a copy of a virtual machine that shares virtual disks with the parent virtual machine in an ongoing manner. This conserves disk space, and allows multiple virtual machines to use the same software installation.
  • Cloning a virtual machine can save time if you are deploying many similar virtual machines. You can create, configure, and install software on a single virtual machine, and then clone it multiple times, rather than creating and configuring each virtual machine individually.


  • A template is a master copy or a baseline image of a virtual machine that can be used to create many clones.
  • Templates cannot be powered on or edited, and are more difficult to alter than ordinary virtual machine.
  • You can convert the template back to Virtual Machine to update the base template with the latest released patches and updates and to install or upgrade any software and again convert back to template to be used for future deployment of Virtual Machines with the latest patches.
  • Convert virtual Machine to template cannot be performed, when Virtual machine is powered on.  Only Clone to Template can be performed when the Virtual Machine is powered on.
  • A template offers a more secure way of preserving a virtual machine configuration that you want to deploy many times.
  • When you clone a virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template, the resulting cloned virtual machine is independent of the original virtual machine or template.
  1. What is promiscuous mode in Vmware?
  • Promiscuous mode is a security policy which can be defined at the virtual switch or portgroup level
  • A virtual machine, Service Console or VMkernel network interface in a portgroup which allows use of promiscuous mode can see all network traffic traversing the virtual switch.
  • If this mode is set to reject, the packets are sent to intended port so that the intended virtual machine will only be able to see the communication.
  • Example: In case you are using a virtual xp inside any Windows VM. If promiscuous mode is set to reject then the virtual xp won’t be able to connect the network unless promiscuous mode is enabled for the Windows VM.
  1. What is the difference between Thick provision Lazy Zeroed, Thick provision Eager Zeroed and Thin provision?

Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed

  • Creates a virtual disk in a default thick format.
  • Space required for the virtual disk is allocated when the virtual disk is created.
  • Data remaining on the physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
  • Using the default flat virtual disk format does not zero out or eliminate the possibility of recovering deleted files or restoring old data that might be present on this allocated space.
  • You cannot convert a flat disk to a thin disk.

Thick Provision Eager Zeroed

  • A type of thick virtual disk that supports clustering features such as Fault Tolerance.
  • Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
  • In contrast to the flat format, the data remaining on the physical device is zeroed out when the virtual disk is created.
  • It might take much longer to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.

Thin Provision

  • It provides on on-demand allocation of blocks of data.
  • All the space allocated at the time of creation of virtual disk is not utilized on the hard disk, rather only the size with utilized data is locked and the size increases as the amount of data is increased on the disk.
  • With thin provisioning, storage capacity utilization efficiency can be automatically driven up towards 100% with very little administrative overhead.
  1. What is a snapshot?

A snapshot is a “point in time image” of a virtual guest operating system (VM). That snapshot contains an image of the VMs disk, RAM, and devices at the time the snapshot was taken. With the snapshot, you can return the VM to that point in time, whenever you choose. You can take snapshots of your VMs, no matter what guest OS you have and the snapshot functionality can be used for features like performing image level backups of the VMs without ever shutting them down.

  1. What is VDI?
  • VDI stands for Virtual Desktop Infrastructure where end user physical machine like desktop or laptop are virtualized due to which VMware described VDI as “delivering desktops from the data center”.
  • Once VDI is used the end user connect to their desktop using a device called thin client.
  • The end user can also connect to their desktop using VMware Horizon View installed on any desktop or mobile devices
  1. What is VMware HA?
  • VMware HA i.e. High Availability which works on the host level and is configured on the Cluster.
  • A Cluster configured with HA will migrate and restart all the vms running under any of the host in case of any host-level failure automatically to another host under the same cluster.
  • VMware HA continuously monitors all ESX Server hosts in a cluster and detects failures.
  • VMware HA agent placed on each host maintains a heartbeat with the other hosts in the cluster using the service console network. Each server sends heartbeats to the others servers in the cluster at five-second intervals. If any servers lose heartbeat over three consecutive heartbeat intervals, VMware HA initiates the failover action of restarting all affected virtual machines on other hosts.
  • You can set virtual machine restart priority in case of any host failure depending upon the critical nature of the vm.

NOTE: Using HA in case of any host failure with RESTART the vms on different host so the vms state will be interrupted and it is not a live migration

  1. What is the difference between VMware HA and vMotion?

VMware HA is used in the event when any of the hosts inside a cluster fails then all the virtual machines running under it are restarted on different host in the same cluster.

Now HA is dependent on vMotion to perform live migration of the vms to different host so vMotion is just used for the migration purpose between multiple hosts which is also used by other functionality like DRS.

NOTE: Anyhow HA can work very will without vMotion as its primary functionality is to restart the vm from the affected host to the working host but this will be service affecting as the vms will be ‘powered off’ and then ‘powered on’ on the new host.

  1. What is storage vMotion?
  • Storage vMotion is similar to vMotion in the sense that “something” related to the VM is moved and there is no downtime to the VM guest and end users. However, with SVMotion the VM Guest stays on the server that it resides on but the virtual disk for that VM is what moves.
  • With Storage vMotion, you can migrate a virtual machine and its disk files from one datastore to another while the virtual machine is running.
  • You can choose to place the virtual machine and all its disks in a single location, or select separate locations for the virtual machine configuration file and each virtual disk.
  • During a migration with Storage vMotion, you can transform virtual disks from Thick-Provisioned Lazy Zeroed or Thick-Provisioned Eager Zeroed to Thin-Provisioned or the reverse.
  • Perform live migration of virtual machine disk files across any Fibre Channel, iSCSI, FCoE and NFS storage
  1. What is VMware DRS and how does it works?
  • Here DRS stands for Distributed Resource Scheduler which dynamically balances resource across various host under Cluster or resource pool.
  • VMware DRS allows users to define the rules and policies that decide how virtual machines share resources and how these resources are prioritized among multiple virtual machines.
  • Resources are allocated to the virtual machine by either migrating it to another server with more available resources or by making more “space” for it on the same server by migrating other virtual machines to different servers.
  • The live migration of virtual machines to different physical servers is executed completely transparent to end-users through VMware VMotion
  • VMware DRS can be configured to operate in either automatic or manual mode. In automatic mode, VMware DRS determines the best possible distribution of virtual machines among different physical servers and automatically migrates virtual machines to the most appropriate physical servers. In manual mode, VMware DRS provides a recommendation for optimal placement of virtual machines, and leaves it to the system administrator to decide whether to make the change.
  1. What is VMware Fault Tolerance?
  • VMware Fault Tolerance provides continuous availability to applications running in a virtual machine, preventing downtime and data loss in the event of server failures.
  • VMware Fault Tolerance, when enabled for a virtual machine, creates a live shadow instance of the primary, running on another physical server.
  • The two instances are kept in virtual lockstep with each other using VMware vLockstep technology
  • The two virtual machines play the exact same set of events, because they get the exact same set of inputs at any given time.
  • The two virtual machines constantly heartbeat against each other and if either virtual machine instance loses the heartbeat, the other takes over immediately. The heartbeats are very frequent, with millisecond intervals, making the failover instantaneous with no loss of data or state.
  • VMware Fault Tolerance requires a dedicated network connection, separate from the VMware VMotion network, between the two physical servers.
  1. In a cluster with more than 3 hosts, can you tell Fault Tolerance where to put the Fault Tolerance virtual machine or does it chose on its own?

You can place the original (or Primary virtual machine). You have full control with DRS or vMotion to assign it to any node. The placement of the Secondary, when created, is automatic based on the available hosts. But when the Secondary is created and placed, you can vMotion it to the preferred host.

  1. How many virtual CPUs can I use on a Fault Tolerant virtual machine ?

vCenter Server 4.x and vCenter Server 5.x support 1 virtual CPU per protected virtual machine.

  1. What happens if vCenter Server is offline when a failover event occurs?

When Fault Tolerance is configured for a virtual machine, vCenter Server need not be online for FT to work. Even if vCenter Server is offline, failover still occurs from the Primary to the Secondary virtual machine. Additionally, the spawning of a new Secondary virtual machine also occurs without vCenter Server.

  1. What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Hypervisor?

Type 1 Hypervisor

  • This is also known as Bare Metal or Embedded or Native Hypervisor.
  • It works directly on the hardware of the host and can monitor operating systems that run above the hypervisor.
  • It is completely independent from the Operating System.
  • The hypervisor is small as its main task is sharing and managing hardware resources between different operating systems.
  • A major advantage is that any problems in one virtual machine or guest operating system do not affect the other guest operating systems running on the hypervisor.
  • Examples: VMware ESXi Server, Microsoft Hyper-V, Citrix/Xen Server

Type 2 Hypervisor

  • This is also known as Hosted Hypervisor.
  • In this case, the hypervisor is installed on an operating system and then supports other operating systems above it.
  • It is completely dependent on host Operating System for its operations
  • While having a base operating system allows better specification of policies, any problems in the base operating system a ffects the entire system as well even if the hypervisor running above the base OS is secure.
  • Examples: VMware Workstation, Microsoft Virtual PC, Oracle Virtual Box
  1. How does vSphere HA works?
    When we configure multiple hosts for HA cluster, a single host is automatically elected as the master host. The master host communicates with vCenter Server and monitors the state of all protected virtual machines and of the slave hosts. When you add a host to a vSphere HA cluster, an agent is uploaded to the host and configured to communicate with other agents in the cluster.22. What are the monitoring methods used for vSphere HA?
    The Master and Slave hosts uses two types of monitoring the status of the hosts
  • Datastore Heartbeat
  • Network Heartbeat
  1. What are the roles of master host in vSphere HA?
  • Monitoring the state of slave hosts. If a slave host fails or becomes unreachable, the master host identifies which virtual machines need to be restarted.
  • Monitoring the power state of all protected virtual machines. If one virtual machine fails, the master host ensures that it is restarted. Using a local placement engine, the master host also determines where the restart should be done.
  • Managing the lists of cluster hosts and protected virtual machines.
  • Acting as vCenter Server management interface to the cluster and reporting the cluster health state.
  1. How is a Master host elected in vSphere HA environment?
    When vSphere HA is enabled for a cluster, all active hosts (those not in standby or maintenance mode, or not disconnected) participate in an election to choose the cluster’s master host. The host that mounts the greatest number of datastores has an advantage in the election. Only one master host typically exists per cluster and all other hosts are slave hosts.If the master host fails, is shut down or put in standby mode, or is removed from the cluster a new election is held.
  2.  If the vCenterserver goes down with a situation that it was pre configured with vSphere HA and DRS, so after power down will HA and DRS perform their task?
    vSphere HA is not dependent on vCenterserver for its operations as when HA is configured it installs an agent into each host which does its part and is not dependent on vCenterserver. Also HA doesnot uses vMotion, it justs restarts the vms into another host in any case of host failure.Further vSphere DRS is very much dependent on vCenterserver as it uses vMotion for its action for live migration of vms between multiple hosts so in case vCenterserver goes down the vMotion won’t work leading to failure of DRS.
  3. What is the use of vmware tools?
    VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machine’s guest operating system and improves management of the virtual machine. Without VMware Tools installed in your guest operating system, guest performance lacks important functionality. Installing VMware Tools eliminates or improves these issues:
  • Low video resolution
  • Inadequate color depth
  • Incorrect display of network speed
  • Restricted movement of the mouse
  • Inability to copy and paste and drag-and-drop files
  • Missing sound
  • Provides the ability to take quiesced snapshots of the guest OS
  • Synchronizes the time in the guest operating system with the time on the host
  • Provides support for guest-bound calls created with the VMware VIX API

VMware File Description

VMware File Description

*.nvram file – This file contains the CMOS/BIOS for the VM. The BIOS is based off the PhoenixBIOS 4.0 Release 6 and is one of the most successful and widely used BIOS and is compliant with all the major standards, including USB, PCI, ACPI, 1394, WfM and PC2001. If the NVRAM file is deleted or missing it will automatically be re-created when the VM is powered on. Any changes made to the BIOS via the Setup program (F2 at boot) will be saved in this file. This file is usually less then 10K in size and is not in a text format (binary).

vmdk files – These are the disk files that are created for each virtual hard drive in your VM. There are 3 different types of files that use the vmdk extension, they are:

*–flat.vmdk file – This is the actual raw disk file that is created for each virtual hard drive. Almost all of a .vmdk file’s content is the virtual machine’s data, with a small portion allotted to virtual machine overhead. This file will be roughly the same size as your virtual hard drive.

*.vmdk file – This isn’t the file containing the raw data anymore. Instead it is the disk descriptor file which describes the size and geometry of the virtual disk file. This file is in text format and contains the name of the –flat.vmdk file for which it is associated with and also the hard drive adapter type, drive sectors, heads and cylinders, etc. One of these files will exist for each virtual hard drive that is assigned to your virtual machine. You can tell which –flat.vmdk file it is associated with by opening the file and looking at the Extent Description field.

*–delta.vmdk file – This is the differential file created when you take a snapshot of a VM (also known as REDO log). When you snapshot a VM it stops writing to the base vmdk and starts writing changes to the snapshot delta file. The snapshot delta will initially be small and then start growing as changes are made to the base vmdk file, The delta file is a bitmap of the changes to the base vmdk thus is can never grow larger than the base vmdk. A delta file will be created for each snapshot that you create for a VM. These files are automatically deleted when the snapshot is deleted or reverted in snapshot manager.

*.vmx file – This file is the primary configuration file for a virtual machine. When you create a new virtual machine and configure the hardware settings for it that information is stored in this file. This file is in text format and contains entries for the hard disk, network adapters, memory, CPU, ports, power options, etc. You can either edit these files directly if you know what to add or use the Vmware GUI (Edit Settings on the VM) which will automatically update the file.

*.vswp file – This is the VM swap file (earlier ESX versions had a per host swap file) and is created to allow for memory overcommitment on a ESX server. The file is created when a VM is powered on and deleted when it is powered off. By default when you create a VM the memory reservation is set to zero, meaning no memory is reserved for the VM and it can potentially be 100% overcommitted. As a result of this a vswp file is created equal to the amount of memory that the VM is assigned minus the memory reservation that is configured for the VM. So a VM that is configured with 2GB of memory will create a 2GB vswp file when it is powered on, if you set a memory reservation for 1GB, then it will only create a 1GB vswp file. If you specify a 2GB reservation then it creates a 0 byte file that it does not use. When you do specify a memory reservation then physical RAM from the host will be reserved for the VM and not usable by any other VM’s on that host. A VM will not use it vswp file as long as physical RAM is available on the host. Once all physical RAM is used on the host by all its VM’s and it becomes overcommitted then VM’s start to use their vswp files instead of physical memory. Since the vswp file is a disk file it will effect the performance of the VM when this happens. If you specify a reservation and the host does not have enough physical RAM when the VM is powered on then the VM will not start.

*.vmss file – This file is created when a VM is put into Suspend (pause) mode and is used to save the suspend state. It is basically a copy of the VM’s RAM and will be a few megabytes larger than the maximum RAM memory allocated to the VM. If you delete this file while the VM is in a suspend state It will start the VM from a normal boot up instead of starting the vm from the state it was when it was suspended. This file is not automatically deleted when the VM is brought out of Suspend mode. Like the Vswp file this file will only be deleted when the VM is powered off (not rebooted). If a Vmss file exists from a previous suspend and the VM is suspended again then the previous file is re-used for the subsequent suspensions. Also note that if a vswp file is present it is deleted when a VM is suspended and then re-created when the VM is powered on again. The reason for this is that the VM is essentially powered off in the suspend state, it’s RAM contents are just preserved in the vmss file so it can be quickly powered back on.


*.log file – This is the file that keeps a log of the virtual machine activity and is useful in troubleshooting virtual machine problems. Every time a VM is powered off and then back on a new log file is created. The current log file for the VM is always vmware.log. The older log filesare incremented with a -# in the filename and up to 6 of them will be retained. (ie. vmware-4.log) The older .log files are always deleteable at will, the latest .log file can be deleted when the VM is powered off. As the log files do not take much disk space, most administrators let them be

*.vmxf file – This is a supplemental configuration file in text format for virtual machines that are in a team. Note that the .vmxf file remains if a virtual machine is removed from the team. Teaming virtual machines is a Vmware Workstation feature and includes the ability to designate multiple virtual machines as a team, which administrators can then power on and off, suspend and resume as a single object — making it particularly useful for testing client-server environments. This file still exists with ESX server virtual machines but only for compatibility purposes with Workstation.


*.vmsd file – This file is used to store metadata and information about snapshots. This file is in text format and will contain information such as the snapshot display name, uid, disk file name, etc. It is initially a 0 byte file until you create your first snapshot of a VM and from that point it will populate the file and continue to update it whenever new snapshots are taken. This file does not cleanup completely after snapshots are taken. Once you delete a snapshot it will still leave the fields in the file for each snapshot and just increment the uid and set the name to “Consolidate Helper” presumably to be used with Consolidated Backups

*.vmsn file – This is the snapshot state file, which stores the exact running state of a virtual machine at the time you take that snapshot. This file will either be small or large depending on if you select to preserve the VM’s memory as part of the snapshot. If you do choose to preserve the VM’s memory then this file will be a view megabytes larger then the maximum RAM memory allocated to the VM. This file is similar to the vmss (Suspend) file. A vmsn file will be created for each snapshot taken on the VM, these files are automatically deleted when the snapshot is removed.

Important Advise for new entrepreneur

10 Pieces of Tips you must Ignore when you start out as an entrepreneur

Starting out as an entrepreneur is never be easy. I learnt that in the last 18 months that it has its own share of excitement, perils and uncertainties. What is typically available in abundance is people willing to give you free advice on how you should go about your job. Believe me, there are some very beautiful worded advice given by well wishers that are in fact absolutely useless and misleading for an entrepreneur. Here are 10 such pieces of advice…

1. You must be absolutely clear about what you want to do.

Oh really? Frankly, even the most successful businessmen of today did not have a clue about how the business would shape up over a period of time. I doubt if Mark Zuckerberg or even Jeff Weiner would have been able to really fathom the full impact of the disruption they were going to create. The truth is that you start off with a broad idea. You pick up strings along the way and learn as you go. Your actual business model will evolve gradually over a number of years, not overnight. So if you are starting out on your own and are confused, you are possibly on the right track.

2. Be fully aware of the risks you are getting into.

Frankly, no entrepreneur can fully fathom the risks that they are getting into. There are a variety of risks that will come along the way. Business prospects will not translate into business. Follow-ups will be endless. You will find yourself in a constant liquidity crunch. External environment will conspire to make life miserable for you. There is no way you are going to envisage all these risks. It is humanely impossible and you have got to learn to take the risk as it comes.

3. Be absolutely sure that you are cut out for doing business.

The truth is that you have to cut yourself according to the job. Nobody is born a successful businessman. They are made; and made gradually. The most important quality of an entrepreneur is persistence. You have to keep chipping away bit by bit and learning along the way. There is nothing like you are born to be an entrepreneur. If you have the flair to take risks and the persistence to stay with the idea, you can make a success of it.

4. If it is not working, just move on.

Sorry, that does not work when you are entrepreneur. Ok, you have to be flexible to make changes and learn along the way. But jumping from one idea to another idea and from one project to another project is a recipe for disaster. To extend my previous argument, you have to be persistent.

5. Ensure that your family is not to put to any trouble.

I mean; are you serious? Have you ever heard of a person who became an entrepreneur and his family did not have to worry about anything. That does not happen in reality. Your family has to go through the pain and uncertainty, whether they like it or not. If you want to become an entprepreneur only after everything is secured, you are best suited to a job. Perish the thought of being an entrepreneur.

6. Be clear where you will be 10 years from now.

Yes sir, I just heard that Mark Zuckerberg knew exactly that Facebook will be worth $200 billion in 10 years flat. No entrepreneur who starts out on his own ever has a clue what is going to happen 1 year down the line; leave alone knowing what will happen 10 years down the line. You need to do your task with a passion, learn along the way and be flexible where required. In a dynamic environment, you struggle to visualize the next few quarters. 10 years is 40 quarters; Holy Jesus that is a real long time.

7. Remember, you have to be ruthless to succeed in business.

Have we not heard this generalization so often from our well wishers? Come on, you are talking about following your passion, not to become a modern day Gordon Gekko. More than anything else, being successful in business is about humility. Have the humility to learn as you go along. Have the humility to admit when you are wrong. Have the humility to delve into the details of the problem, however small.

8. To succeed you have to get the big picture right.

That is hogwash. Being a successful entrepreneur is not about the big picture at all. It is all about getting the small details right. In the early days of your business, you get bogged down by the micro details not by macro issues. Your philosophy should be, “Take care of the micro details and the macros will take care of itself. Being a generalist with a big picture will not get you too far.

9. To succeed in business you have to be rational and let your head rule your heart.

Sorry to disappoint you again. With these qualities you can probably be a successful middle or senior level executive in the corporate world. As an entrepreneur you are driven by passion and passions are normally irrational and crazy. In fact, if you want to be a successful entrepreneur, you have to have a crazy side to your personality. Remember, the pragmatic man tries to adapt himself to the world and the crazy man tries to adapt the world to himself. So all progress and innovation comes from crazy people. But please don’t stretch this argument too far.

10. Ensure that your revenues are growing consistently.

That only happens in regular salary hikes. Businesses follow  a different model of growth altogether. More so, when you are an entrepreneur. You first go through the phase of building the business model. They you go through the phase of building visibility. Then you go through the pain of taking your idea to achieve a critical mass. It is only after this stage that you are actually able to exploit the commercial potential of your idea fully. In the initial years, forget about consistent growth in income. It will grow in fits and starts.

10 Tips for entrepreneur by Harihar


SEO Dubai l Zaah Computers l Best IT Services Company in UAE

What is SEO and how it works?

Search engine optimization, also known as SEO is the technical art of optimizing your website to get it to the top of search engine results when a user enters specific keywords relative to your business domain. The ranking of the site is largely based on the keyword that you select and implement. Thus, to carry out everything in a proper manner you must go with the Professional SEO Experts. The professional SEO Specialist and Best SEO Consultants will help in increasing the traffic at your website that in turn increase the ranking of your website in the search engine.

SEO Dubai - Best IT Services Company in UAE

With thousands of companies out there competing with you on the same niche, it becomes nothing short of a herculean challenge to get your website on to the top 10 results on major search engines like Google, Yahoo and Bing. Every website that wants to be successful and earn a positive Return On Investment needs to be on top searches.

SEO helps in giving your business a global outreach. It is the solid road through which you can reach out to global as well as local audiences without having to spend thousands of dollars in media advertising or digital broadcasting. Tools and techniques of SEO give you optimal results and are known as low-cost solutions to difficult marketing tactics.

SEO Dubai Services: 

Dubai is growing to be one of the world’s most popular spot for business processes as people from the world over collaborate to make this place their central operating zone for the entire Middle East region. As it is, businesses in Dubai need a crucial presence in the online world when international business folks search for opportunities and services here. If websites of several businesses with proper SEO technology is implemented, people from the world over can gain maximum benefit from it. SEO Dubai Services is emerging rapidly, therefore, people are seeking for SEO Service in Dubai to make their website reach a higher level of rank on Search Engine Results Page or SERP without paying anything in monetary terms. Besides that, It becomes easier for a website to get famous among the customers and seek their attention.

SEO Types:


On Page SEO Methods-

  • Keyword Research
  • Title tags Generation
  • Meta tags Optimization
  • Keyword Optimization
  • ALT tags Optimization
  • Hyperlink Optimization
  • Content Optimization
  • Sitemap Generation
  • Website Friendliness
  • Linking structure
  • W3C Validation

Off Page SEO Methods-

  • Link Popularity Analysis
  • Competition Analysis
  • Link Building by one way and Reciprocal Linking
  • Anchor text analysis
  • Submission to search engine and directory Submission
  • Article Submission
  • Maintenance

Most importantly with basic SEO Services, there are also some other SEO strategies that are worked as well to obtain a higher ranking in search engine. Therefore, a lot of sites have no identical goal towards Search Engine Optimization Firm, as these sites can seek any traffic. These sites optimized through common search phrases. Such sites will get broad interest through broad optimization strategies. Besides that, there are a general news site, a magazine site, or any other sites that use an advertising proceeds model may get advantage from broad optimization strategies provided by SEO Consultants.

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